Integrated Circuits Fabrication and their Technologies

   As it was mentioned in the integrated circuits article that it is the strong body of technology and that it is better than vacuum tubes. In this article, we will show the types of integrated circuits technologies and how to manufacture them from the beginning of the sand through the silicon to the final IC.  

 » Integrated Circuits Technologies
     The IC technology is mean that how much its size and how many transistors integrated with each other to form a single IC chip.There are many types of IC technologies as shown in the following table.


IC Technology Type

Transistors number


Small Scale Integration SSI

1 – 100

Logic gates, Op-Amp, Flipflops




Medium Scale Integration MSI

100 – 1000

Counters, MUX, adders, 4bit µPs


Large Scale Integration LSI

1000 – 10K

 8bit µPs, ROM, RAM


Very Large Scale Integration VLSI

10K – 1M

16,32bit µPs, CMOS


Ultra Large Scale Integration ULSI 

1M – 10M

Pentium Processors


 Giant Large Scale Integration GSI 

above 10M

Embedded systems, systems  on chip 


 » Integrated Circuits Fabrication Techniques


  The fabrication of semiconductor devices is the process used to fabricate integrated circuits devices, typically metal oxide semiconductor MOS devices used in integrated circuits chips in any electrical and electronic devices. The starting material for integrated circuits fabrication is Single  crystal silicon wafer. The fabrication operation is has many steps:

 1. Layering, The layering step serves to add thin layers to the surface of the wafer. These layers may be of a different material,                                microstructure and composition of the same material such as polycristalline silicon and silicon oxide.


 2. Patterning,  the most important step in the wafer fabrication is patterning or lithography. The deposition, doping, etching and patterning            refer to a series of steps to selectively mask or expose portions of the surface. It sets device’s critical dimensions on the wafers.


 3. Doping,  it is refers to the process of incorporating specific amounts of electrically active impurities through openings on the surface of  the    wafers. The doped materials are typically impurities of the type p or n and are necessary to form devices such as diodes , transistors,                    conductors and IC devices.


 4. Heat treatment, also called Furnace annealing, it is a process used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices which consists of   heating       multiple wafers of semiconductors to affect their electrical properties. The heat treatments are designed for various  effects. Wafers  can be         heated to enable dopants (doped material like phosphorus), transfer film to film or film to wafer substratum  interfaces, densify deposited           films, adjust grown film conditions, repair implant damage, shift dopants or drive dopants from one film to  another or from a film to wafer         substratum as shown in figure A.    

Figure A
Wafers Heat Treatment

     There are many techniques of integrated circuits fabrication such as Mono-lithic, Thin Film , Thick Film and Hybrid technique. We will               explain the difference between them in other article. Now, the following videos will show the journey of IC from the sand to the final IC             chip.

Play Video

» Article Citation

Written by Anas, K. (2020, June 15). Integrated Circuits Fabrication and their Technologies, IEEE AIET SB. Retrieved       from

» References 

[1]  Semantic Scholar. (n.d.). Integrated Circuits Fabrication. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from

[2] Intel, (2009). Silicon to Sand-the making of a chip. Retrieved from

[3] Shabeer Rasheed, (2011). the making of a chip. Retrieved from

[4] Dr.Ahmed Khairy,(2020).Integrated Circuits Technologies, ECE 344 Course, AIET Lectures.