Integrated Circuits ICs

Integrated circuits ICs, also called microelectronic circuits or chips. It is a set of electronics components and fabricated as a single unit, in which micro active devices such as diodes and transistors and passive devices such as capacitors and resistors and their interconnections are built up on a thin substrate of semiconductors materials such as siliconWhen the transistor discovery by William Shockley and his team at the American Telephone and Telegraph Company’s Bell Laboratories occurred in 1947,  the integrated circuits were created.

 Shockley’s team ( John Bardeen and Walter H. Brattain) found that the electrons can create a barrier on the surface of certain crystals under the right conditions and learned to control electricity flow through the crystal by controlling this barrier. Controlling electrons flow through a crystal enabled the team to create a device capable of performing certain electrical operations, such as signal amplification performed by vacuum tubes beforehand.
They called this device a  transistor which form from a combination of conductors and resistors. This type of electronics with solid materials has become known as solid-state electronics. Solid-state devices proved to be more rigid, easier to work, reliable, smaller, and less expensive than vacuum tubes. So, we deduce that any IC consisting of a large number of transistors. The next videos explain by animation how the transistors work.

» Integrated Circuits Advantages

  • Increase the reliability more than normal circuits due to the lesser number of connection and size .
  • Their weight and occupied space is small.
  • It has the ability to operate at high temperature
  • Circuit layout is simple due to the IC has a small number of external connections.

» Integrated Circuits disadvantages

  • If any component of IC is damaged ,the whole IC must be replaced.
  • We can not easily fabricate a capacitor its capactance exceed than 30 pico farad, So we sometimes use a external component.
  • We can not fabricate a inductor or transformer on the surface of semiconductor.

Integrated circuits have many applications such as microcontrollers, Operational Amplifiers OP-Amp, Timer 555, Logic gates and Flipflops etc. 

Integrated Circuit IC
Microcontroller (AVR ATmega 328)
J-K Flipflop
Timer 555
Operational Amplifier Op-Amp

» Article Citation

Written by Anas, K. (2020, June 06). Integrated Circuits ICs, IEEE AIET SB. Retrieved from

» References 

[1] Integrated circuit (IC). Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 Dec. 2017. 06107zo27-1105-y-https-academic-eb .

[2] Learn Engineering, (2018). Transistor work principle. Retrieved from

[3] Dr.Ahmed Khairy,(2020).Integrated Circuits Technologies, ECE 344 Course, AIET Lectures